Goats in Mozambique awaiting sale (photo credit: ILRI/Yvane Marblé).

World Zoonoses Day, celebrated annually on 6 July, commemorates the day in 1885 when Louis Pasteur successfully administered the first vaccine against a zoonotic disease. It is also a day to raise public awareness of the risk of zoonotic diseases and how to effectively prevent and control them.

The International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) has a wealth of research expertise on zoonoses. Through its Animal and Human Health program, ILRI works with national and international partners to improve the control of zoonotic diseases through various approaches such as risk mapping and risk targeting, modelling of zoonotic pandemics, decision-support tools and advice on vaccination strategies. The program also generates evidence for policymakers on the cost and impact of zoonoses and the benefits of their prevention.

Our collaborative research projects on zoonoses include examining zoonotic infections among livestock and the farmers who keep them; developing optimal vaccination strategies for Rift Valley fever in East Africa; studying the epidemiology, ecology and socio-economics of disease emergence in Nairobi; developing a surveillance program for zoonoses in livestock in Kenya; identifying anthrax hotspots and ecological risk factors in Kenya and determining the burden of Rift Valley fever, brucellosis and Q fever co-infection in people, livestock and wildlife in Kenya.

To explore our research in more detail, below is a list of recent peer-reviewed articles on zoonoses by ILRI scientists and partners.

  • Akoko, J.M., Pelle, R., Lukambagire, A.S., Machuka, E.M., Nthiwa, D., Mathew, C., Fèvre, E.M., Bett, B., Cook, E.A.J., Othero, D., Bonfoh, B., Kazwala, R.R., Shirima, G., Schelling, E., Halliday, J.E.B. and Ouma, C. 2021. Molecular epidemiology of Brucella species in mixed livestock-human ecosystems in Kenya. Scientific Reports 11: 8881.https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113566
  • Alumasa, L., Thomas, L.F., Amanya, F., Njoroge, S.M., Moriyón, I., Makhandia, J., Rushton, J., Fèvre, E.M. and Falzon, L.C. 2021. Hospital-based evidence on cost-effectiveness of brucellosis diagnostic tests and treatment in Kenyan hospitals. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15(1): e0008977. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/110774
  • Deka, R.P., Shome, R., Dohoo, I., Magnusson, U., Randolph, D.G. and Lindahl, J.F. 2021. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Brucella infection in dairy animals in urban and rural areas of Bihar and Assam, India. Microorganisms 9(4): 783. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113277
  • Gilbert, W., Thomas, L., Coyne, L. and Rushton, J. 2021. Review: Mitigating the risks posed by intensification in livestock production: the examples of antimicrobial resistance and zoonoses. Animal 15(2): 100123. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/111132
  • Henriksson, E., Söderberg, R., Ström Hallenberg, G., Kroesna, K., Ly, S., Sear, B., Unger, F., Tum, S., Hung Nguyen-Viet and Lindahl, J.F. 2021. Japanese encephalitis in small-scale pig farming in rural Cambodia: Pig seroprevalence and farmer awareness. Pathogens 10(5): 578. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113720
  • Muturi, M., Akoko, J., Nthiwa, D., Chege, B., Nyamota, R., Mutiiria, M., Maina, J., Thumbi, S.M., Nyamai, M., Kahariri, S., Sitawa, R., Kimutai, J., Kuria, W., Mwatondo, A. and Bett, B. 2021. Serological evidence of single and mixed infections of Rift Valley fever virus, Brucella spp. and Coxiella burnetii in dromedary camels in Kenya. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15(3): e0009275. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113148
  • Naguib, M.M., Li, R., Ling, J., Grace, D., Hung Nguyen-Viet and Lindahl, J.F. 2021. Live and wet markets: Food access versus the risk of disease emergence. Trends in Microbiology 29(7): 573–581. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113015
  • Nderitu, L.M., Gachohi, J., Otieno, F., Mogoa, E.G., Muturi, M., Mwatondo, A., Osoro, E.M., Ngere, I., Munyua, P.M., Oyas, H., Njagi, O., Lofgren, E., Marsh, T., Widdowson, M.-A., Bett, B. and Njenga, M.K. 2021. Spatial clustering of livestock anthrax events associated with agro-ecological zones in Kenya, 1957-2017. BMC Infectious Diseases 21(1): 191. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/111487
  • Ngwili, N., Johnson, N., Wahome, R., Githigia, S., Roesel, K. and Thomas, L. 2021. A qualitative assessment of the context and enabling environment for the control of Taenia solium infections in endemic settings. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15(6): e0009470. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113942
  • Otieno, F.T., Gachohi, J., Gikuma-Njuru, P., Kariuki, P., Oyas, H., Canfield, S.A., Bett, B., Njenga, M.K. and Blackburn, J.K. 2021. Modeling the potential future distribution of anthrax outbreaks under multiple climate change scenarios for Kenya. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 18(8): 4176. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113625
  • Otieno, F.T., Gachohi, J., Gikuma-Njuru, P., Kariuki, P., Oyas, H., Canfield, S.A., Blackburn, J.K., Njenga, M.K. and Bett, B. 2021. Modeling the spatial distribution of anthrax in southern Kenya. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 15(3): e0009301. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113180
  • Ouma, E., Dione, M., Mtimet, N., Lule, P., Colston, A., Adediran, S. and Grace, D. 2021. Demand for Taenia solium cysticercosis vaccine: Lessons and insights from the pig production and trading nodes of the Uganda pig value chain. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8: 611166. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113629
  • Söderberg, R., Lindahl, J.F., Henriksson, E., Kroesna, K., Ly, S., Sear, B., Unger, F., Tum, S., Hung Nguyen-Viet and Ström Hallenberg, G. 2021. Low prevalence of cysticercosis and Trichinella infection in pigs in rural Cambodia. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 6(2): 100. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/114058
  • Thomas, L.F., Rushton, J., Bukachi, S.A., Falzon, L.C., Howland, O. and Fèvre, E.M. 2021. Cross-sectoral zoonotic disease surveillance in western Kenya: Identifying drivers and barriers within a resource constrained setting. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8: 658454. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113931
  • Widiasih, D.A., Lindahl, J.F., Artama, W.T., Sutomo, A.H., Kutanegara, P.M., Mulyani, G.T., Widodo, E., Djohan, T.S. and Unger, F. 2021. Leptospirosis in ruminants in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: A serological survey with mixed methods to identify risk factors. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease 6(2): 84. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/113899
  • Youssef, D.M., Wieland, B., Knight, G.M., Lines, J. and Naylor, N.R. 2021. The effectiveness of biosecurity interventions in reducing the transmission of bacteria from livestock to humans at the farm level: A systematic literature review. Zoonoses and Public Health. https://hdl.handle.net/10568/111192

For more information on ILRI’s research on zoonoses, contact Bernard Bett, senior scientist at ILRI (b.bett@cgiar.org) or Eric Fèvre, professor of veterinary infectious diseases, Institute of Infection and Global Health, University of Liverpool on joint appointment at ILRI (eric.fevre@liverpool.ac.uk).

Photo credit: Goats in Mozambique awaiting sale (ILRI/Yvane Marblé)