A4NH


Photo credit: Vegetable market in Ethiopia (East African Policy Research Institute/Birhanu Lenjiso)

The rapid evolution of global food safety systems in response to population growth, urbanization, climate change and other socio-economic factors poses many food safety challenges.

Globally, unsafe food causes an estimated 600 million illnesses and 420,000 deaths annually, with Africa disproportionately bearing the highest burden of foodborne diseases.

To effectively tackle the challenge of foodborne diseases in Africa, a team of scientists from the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) and Ohio State University has proposed the use of risk-based and One Health approaches.

These approaches to food safety management were put forward in a presentation titled Better food safety solutions in Africa: Understanding the complex social, economic and policy perspectives. The presentation was given at the 37th World Veterinary Association Congress held in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates on 29–31 March 2022.

The main foodborne hazards in the African context were discussed, with local and continental examples of food safety initiatives aimed at reducing the burden of foodborne disease and improving public health. Examples of action research and political decision-making on food safety at the continental level were also described.

In light of the complex nature of global and African food safety systems, food safety interventions to reduce foodborne diseases need to be well designed and coordinated, the researchers say.

Citation

Amenu, K., Alonso, S., Mutua, F., Roesel, K., Lindahl, J., Kowalcyk, B., Knight-Jones, T. and Grace, D. 2022. Better food safety solutions in Africa: Understanding the complex social, economic and policy perspectives. Oral presentation at the 37th World Veterinary Association Congress, 29-31 March 2022, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. Nairobi, Kenya: ILRI.

Photo credit: Vegetable market in Ethiopia (East African Policy Research Institute/Birhanu Lenjiso)

Milk cans at Ol Kalou Dairy Plant, Kenya (photo credit: ILRI/Paul Karaimu).

Effective communication and constructive dialogue on inclusive ways forward between policy-makers and informal milk vendors can help to bridge the gap between policy and reality in Kenya’s informal milk sector, according to a new research study published in Development Policy Review (May 2022).

Around 80% of milk in Kenya is sold informally, providing livelihoods and contributing to the food security and nutrition of low-income consumers. Government policy, however, is focused on formalization—primarily through licensing and pasteurization—with enforcement via fines, confiscation of milk or closing the premises of informal actors.

The study, which was carried out by researchers from the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), sought to better understand if, and why, Kenya’s informal milk sector and regulatory system are disconnected from one another and how the policy–reality gap might be better bridged.

To understand the nature and performance of Kenya’s informal milk markets and their governance, the authors used surveys with informal market players and key informant interviews. Fieldwork was carried out in Nairobi in late 2018.

The study found that milk safety and quality matters to all actors in informal milk value chains. The trust-based system used is effective in moderating behaviour and assessing and prioritizing quality and safety. 

However, government policy was found not to accomplish the stated goal of formalization, with low levels of licensing among informal actors. Pasteurization was not rewarded in the market and there was some evidence of sub-optimal pasteurization processes being undertaken to satisfy regulators. 

These findings point to a gap between the reality of Kenya’s informal milk sector and its policy and regulatory system.

This gap is seen in the form of adversarial relationships between regulators and informal actors, and unnecessary transaction costs, missing opportunities for enhancing livelihoods, food safety, and food security. 

The authors of the study therefore recommend that new approaches build on and consider existing approaches taken by actors in informal food markets to ensure food safety and quality. 

Citation

Blackmore, E., Guarín, A., Vorley, B., Alonso, S. and Grace, D. 2022. Kenya’s informal milk markets and the regulation-reality gap. Development Policy Review 40(3): e12581.

Photo credit: Milk collection at a dairy plant in Ol Kalou, Kenya (ILRI/Paul Karaimu)

The COVID-19 pandemic has underscored the need to strengthen national surveillance systems to protect a globally connected world.

In low-income and middle-income countries, zoonotic disease surveillance has advanced considerably in the past two decades. However, surveillance efforts often prioritize urban and adjacent rural communities.

Communities in remote rural areas have had far less support despite having routine exposure to zoonotic diseases due to frequent contact with domestic and wild animals, and restricted access to health care. Limited disease surveillance in remote rural areas is a crucial gap in global health security.

Although this point has been made in the past, practical solutions on how to implement surveillance efficiently in these resource-limited and logistically challenging settings have yet to be discussed.

A new paper in Lancet Global Health (Apr 2022) highlights why investing in disease surveillance in remote rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries will benefit the global community and review current approaches.

Using semi-arid regions in Kenya as a case study, the authors’ viewpoint provides a practical approach by which surveillance in remote rural areas can be strengthened and integrated into existing systems.

The viewpoint represents a transition from simply highlighting the need for a more holistic approach to disease surveillance to a solid plan for how this outcome might be achieved.

Citation

Worsley-Tonks, K.E.L., Bender, J.B., Deem, S.L., Ferguson, A.W., Fèvre, E.M., Martins, D.J., Muloi, D.M., Murray, S., Mutinda, M., Ogada, D., Omondi, G.P., Prasad, S., Wild, H., Zimmerman, D.M. and Hassell, J.M. 2022. Strengthening global health security by improving disease surveillance in remote rural areas of low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet Global Health 10(4): e579–e584.

Photo credit: Camels drinking at a water pan in Wajir county in Kenya (ILRI/George Wamwere-Njoroge)

Transformation of food systems is key to addressing malnutrition, non-communicable diseases, climate change and other global health challenges of the 21st century, a new research study says.

The study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Jan 2022), presents a synthesis of the 22nd Annual Harvard Nutrition Obesity Symposium held in June 2021 entitled ‘Global Food Systems and Sustainable Nutrition in the 21st Century’.

The symposium was a collaboration between the Nutrition Obesity Research Center at Harvard and the Harvard Medical School Division of Nutrition and was organized ahead of the United Nations Food Systems Summit (UNFSS) in September 2021.

A food system includes all the aspects of feeding and nourishing people: growing, harvesting, packaging, processing, transporting, marketing and consuming food.

The authors of the study note that the nutrition and health communities have a significant role to play in ensuring that food systems produce affordable, nutritious and safe food in an equitable manner that safeguards environmental sustainability.

“Food systems need to be better managed and governed to ensure that food system transformation is redesigned to improve nutrition and health, ensure environments are sustainable and resilient, promote fair and equitable livelihoods, and mitigate climate change,” the authors state.

CGIAR-affiliated scientists Delia Grace and Namukolo Covic are among the co-authors of the study.

Delia Grace is professor of food safety systems at the Natural Resources Institute of the University of Greenwich and joint-appointed scientist at the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI).

Namukolo Covic is the ILRI Director General’s Representative to Ethiopia and previously served as senior research coordinator for the CGIAR Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).

Citation

Fanzo, J., Rudie, C., Sigman, I., Grinspoon, S., Benton, T.G., Brown, M.E., Covic, N., Fitch, K., Golden, C.D., Grace, D., Hivert, M.-F., Huybers, P., Jaacks, L.M., Masters, W.A., Nisbett, N., Richardson, R.A., Singleton, C.R., Webb, P. and Willett, W.C. 2022. Sustainable food systems and nutrition in the 21st century: A report from the 22nd Annual Harvard Nutrition Obesity Symposium. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 115(1): 18–33.

Photo credit: Fruit and vegetable on sale in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (ILRI/Geraldine Klarenberg)

The pig production sector in Rwanda is growing rapidly as a result of rising local and regional demand for pork. To better understand how the sector operates, a new study has analysed the country’s pig and pork value chains to map the various actors involved, the governance and sanitary risks and the potential impacts on food safety.

The study, which is published in Frontiers in Veterinary Science (Jan 2022), was carried out by a team of scientists affiliated to the International Livestock Research Institute, the University of Global Health Equity, the University of Leeds, the University of Liverpool and the University of Rwanda.

The researchers held key informant interviews and focus group discussions with farmers, brokers, butchers, abattoir managers and veterinarians to collect data on pig production methods and inputs, the source and destination of live and slaughtered pigs, pork processing infrastructure (abattoirs and factories), the people involved and interactions between them, governance and challenges.

Smallholder farmers dominate pig production in Rwanda, primarily as a source of supplementary income but also for manure. The study also found medium and large pig farms around urban areas. There are few veterinarians attending farms, with most veterinary services provided by less qualified technicians or through self-treatment of pigs by farmers.

Pigs are bought and sold at live pig markets, where brokers play key roles in setting prices, examining pigs for disease and organizing the supply of pigs to abattoirs and for export. The study identified only a few formal pig abattoirs which mainly supply to pork processing factories in Kigali or export to customers.

Although formal abattoirs were attended by a veterinary inspector, a lack of record keeping was noted. Local consumers rely on informal pig slaughtering at farms or restaurant backyards, with irregular veterinary inspection. This observed weakness in pork inspection poses a potential risk to public health.

Generally, the study found that the main sanitary risks were a lack of biosecurity throughout the chain and poor hygiene at slaughter places.

For example, although palpation of the pigs’ tongues was carried out at the markets to check for tapeworm cysts, pigs that tested positive for cysts were not destroyed but were sold at reduced prices in the same market or later informally sold by the owner.

Overall, the pig value chain in Rwanda is characterized by a high degree of informality at all nodes, combined with a rapid growth trajectory in the sector.

The findings of this study provide useful evidence for policymakers to design interventions to address the weaknesses identified in Rwanda’s pig value chain towards improving food safety and safeguarding the health of consumers.

Citation

Shyaka, A., Quinnell, R.J., Rujeni, N. and Fèvre, E. 2022. Using a value chain approach to map the pig production system in Rwanda, its governance, and sanitary risks. Frontiers in Veterinary Science 8: 720553.

Funding

This study was funded by the UK Medical Research Council Global Challenge Research Fund (Grant number MR/P025471/1). Author Fèvre acknowledges partial support from the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), and acknowledges the CGIAR Fund Donors (http://www.cgiar.org/funders).

Photo credit: Pig in concrete stable in Mukono District, Uganda (ILRI/Elisabeth Kilian)

Market near Khulungira Village, in central Malawi

The role of food crops as a conduit for transmission of antimicrobial resistance from soil and water to humans has not been widely studied. Contamination of food crops with antimicrobial-resistant pathogens presents an added foodborne risk to human health.

A team of researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, the International Livestock Research Institute, the University of Copenhagen, Royal Veterinary College and CABI carried out a systematic literature review to consolidate the current state of knowledge on antimicrobial resistance in food crop value chains globally. The review is published in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems (3 Feb 2022).

The review summarized and compared baseline descriptive data on antimicrobial resistance detected in crops and crop inputs globally. This enabled the identification of gaps in understanding of the potential food safety risks to consumers. 

A search of four bibliographic databases using synonyms of antimicrobial resistance in food crop value chains identified 196 studies of interest from 49 countries, mostly in Asia (89 studies) and Africa (38 studies). 

The four most frequently recorded species of interest were Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, and Enterococcus faecium or Enterococcus faecalis. Salad crops, vegetables, and culinary herbs were the most sampled crops. 

The review found that acquired antimicrobial resistance in human pathogens is disseminated throughout food crop value chains in multiple regions around the world. 

However, there were variable patterns of distribution of antimicrobial resistance. Chloramphenicol resistance was reported in food value chain samples in low- and middle-income countries in Asia and Africa while vancomycin resistance in enterococci was reported in food crops from high-income countries.

“This review confirms the widespread reporting of resistance to antimicrobials of medical importance in human pathogenic microbes isolated from crops, both in the field and marketplace,” the authors state.

However, it is difficult to conclusively quantify the risks of exposure to consumers because of the low number of longitudinal studies and diverse sampling methods used.

“Firm conclusions cannot be drawn on the prevalence and relative importance of different kinds of resistance and antimicrobial resistance transmission pathways because of the substantial heterogeneity between study methods and conditions,” the authors caution.

“There is a need to include agriculturally-derived antimicrobial resistance in monitoring food safety risks from plant-based foods, and the challenges facing its surveillance,” the authors recommend.

Citation

Brunn, A., Kadri-Alabi, Z., Moodley, A., Guardabassi, L., Taylor, P., Mateus, A. and Waage, J. 2022. Characteristics and global occurrence of human pathogens harboring antimicrobial resistance in food crops: A scoping review. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 6: 824714.

Funding

This scoping review was partially supported by the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH), led by the International Food Policy Research Institute.

Photo credit: Market near Khulungira Village, in central Malawi (ILRI/Stevie Mann)

Fruit and vegetables on sale alongside other food items in a local market in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia (photo credit: ILRI/Geraldine Klarenberg).

The CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) published its 2020 annual report on activities and accomplishments from its five research flagships:

  • food systems for healthier diets;
  • biofortification;
  • food safety;
  • supporting policies, programs, and enabling action through research; and
  • improving human health.

Noting that the year 2020 was dominated by the COVID-19 pandemic, A4NH director John McDermott said: “The pandemic emphasized the importance of A4NH core research strengths: One Health, nutrition, and food systems, into which gender and equity considerations are integrated as critical to improve nutrition and health outcomes. As a result, A4NH research leaders and teams were called into central roles in COVID-19 response and recovery efforts during 2020 by CGIAR as well as in programs and projects in partner countries.”

The 10-year research program ended in December 2021 as CGIAR transitions to a new research structure and portfolio from 2022.

Access the A4NH 2020 annual report or read the online version.

Photo credit: Local food market in Addis Ababa (ILRI/Geraldine Klarenberg)

Market place in Kenya (photo credit: World Bank/Sambrian Mbaabu).

The Tokyo Nutrition for Growth Summit 2021 takes place on 7–8 December 2021. The summit comes at a critical time, midway through the United Nations Decade of Action on Nutrition, with only five years left to achieve the World Health Assembly  targets on maternal, infant and young child nutrition, and 10 years to reach the Sustainable Development Goals.

Ahead of the summit, on 2 December 2021, the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED) and the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) hosted a side event on the role of informal markets within future food systems.

The purpose of the side event was to derive a set of principles to help national policymakers develop risk-based policies that reward positive food safety as opposed to criminalization and marginalization. Such policies will improve the governance, operations and future of informal markets to ensure their continued contribution to livelihoods, health and nutrition.

A panel discussion featured the following speakers:

  • Delia Grace, professor of food safety systems, Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich and joint appointed scientist, ILRI
  • Jane Battersby, senior lecturer, Department of Environmental and Geographical Science, University of Cape Town
  • Vivian Maduekeh, managing principal, Food Health Systems Advisory
  • Emma Blackmore, research associate, IIED
  • Stella Nordhagen, senior technical specialist, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition
  • Utpal Kumar Sharma, director, Dairy Development Department, Government of Assam, India

View the recording below.

Photo credit: Market place in Kenya (World Bank/Sambrian Mbaabu)

International Open Access Week is an annual scholarly communication event that is marked globally during the last full week of October to raise awareness about open access publishing of research and scholarly outputs to enable their universal online accessibility. The theme of Open Access Week 2021 (25 to 31 Oct) is ‘It matters how we open knowledge: Building structural equity’.

In the field of academic and research publishing, the peer-reviewed journal article is considered as the ‘gold standard’ for quality research outputs. However, many researchers nowadays also consider preprints as important and highly relevant outputs that contribute to the body of knowledge and enable discoverability of current research developments.

A preprint is a version of a scholarly or research manuscript that precedes formal peer review, typesetting and publication in a scholarly or scientific journal. Preprints are often uploaded to online preprint servers or institutional repositories where they are freely accessible as non-typeset versions of the manuscripts.

Publishing of preprints allows researchers to quickly share new findings with their peers and receive early feedback and comments which can help in revising manuscripts for submission to a scholarly journal.

At the International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI), scientists from the Animal and Human Health program carry out collaborative research to effectively manage or eliminate livestock, zoonotic and foodborne diseases that matter to the poor through the generation and use of knowledge, technologies and products, leading to higher farmer incomes and better health and nutrition for consumers and livestock.

While most of their research outputs are published as peer-reviewed journal articles, the program scientists also publish their findings in other formats including books, book chapters, conference proceedings, infographics, presentations, posters, reports, theses and videos. These outputs are all indexed in CGSpace, an open access institutional repository of agricultural research outputs.

The scientists are also increasingly making use of preprints to share their research via open access. In line with the theme of Open Access Week, we present below a curated list of preprints by scientists from ILRI’s Animal and Human Health program and research partners, to highlight the contribution of these outputs to open knowledge and open science.

  • Ejigu, B.A., Asfaw, M.D., Cavalerie, L., Abebaw, T., Nanyingi, M. and Baylis, M. Assessing the impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) on the dynamics of COVID-19: A mathematical modelling study in the case of Ethiopia. medRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.16.20231746
  • Kibugu, J.K., Mburu, D., Munga, L.K., Kurgat, R., Mukasa, B., Lusweti, F.N., Grace, D. and Lindahl, J. Food-borne mycotoxin hazards in the Kenyan market: A retrospective study. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/773747
  • Muloi, D., Wee, B., McClean, D., Ward, M., Pankhurst, L., Phan, H., Ivens, A., Kivali, V., Kiyonga, A., Ndinda, C., Gitahi, N., Ouko, T., Hassell, J., Imboma, T., Akoko, J., Karani, M., Njoroge, S., Muinde, P., Nakamura, Y., Alumasa, L., Öhgren, E., Amanya, F., Ogendo, A., Wilson, D., Bettridge, J., Kiiru, J., Kyobutungi, C., Tacoli, C., Kang’ethe, E., Davila, J., Kariuki, S., Robinson, T., Rushton, J., Woolhouse, M. and Fèvre, E.M. Landscape genomics of Escherichia coli in livestock-keeping households across a rapidly developing urban city. InReview preprint. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-172737/v1
  • Mutembei, A., Mutai, F.K., Mwololo, D., Muriuki, J., Obonyo, M., Kairu-Wanyoike, S.W., Wainaina, M., Lindahl, J., Ontiri, E., Bukachi, S., Njeru, I., Karanja, J., Sang, R., Grace, D. and Bett, B. Leptospira spp. seroprevalence in humans involved in a cross-sectional study in Garissa and Tana River Counties, Kenya. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.17.208363
  • Njaramba, J.K., Wambua, L., Mukiama, T., Amugune, N.O. and Villinger, J. Species substitution in the meat value chain by high-resolution melt analysis of mitochondrial PCR products. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.12.426171
  • Njeru, J., Nthiwa, D., Akoko, J., Oyas, H. and Bett, B. Incidence of Brucella spp. in various livestock species raised under the pastoral production system in Isiolo County, Kenya. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.06.25.170753
  • Ogutu, H.J., Owiny, M., Bett, B. and Otieno, C. Contribution of livestock marketing chains and role played by stakeholders’ knowledge, attitude and practice in spreading cystic hydatidosis to Busia Town, Kenya, 2018. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/638502
  • Talenti, A., Powell, J., Hemmink, J.D., Cook, E.A.J., Wragg, D., Jayaraman, S., Paxton, E., Ezeasor, C., Obishakin, E.T., Agusi, E.R., Tijjani, A., Marshall, K., Fisch, A., Ferreira, B., Qasim, A., Chaudhry, U.N., Wiener, P., Toye, P., Morrison, L.J., Connelley, T. and Prendergast, J. A cattle graph genome incorporating global breed diversity. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.23.449389 
  • Xie, S., Tao, D., Fu, Y., Xu, B., Tang, Y., Steinaa, L., Hemmink, J.D., Pan, W., Huang, X., Nie, X., Zhao, C., Ruan, J., Zhang, Y., Han, J., Fu, L., Ma, Y., Li, X., Liu, X. and Zhao, S. Rapid visual CRISPR assay: a naked-eye colorimetric detection method for nucleic acids based on CRISPR/Cas12a and convolutional neural network. bioRxiv preprint. https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.17.452802

Photo credit: International Open Access Week

The health impacts of climate change are getting worse, exposing communities around the world to greater risks of food and water insecurity, heatwaves and the spread of infectious diseases, according to a new report by the Lancet Countdown.

The Lancet Countdown is an international, multidisciplinary collaboration of leading researchers from 43 academic institutions and United Nations agencies that independently monitors the health consequences of a changing climate and publishes its findings in an annual report.

The 2021 report of the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: code red for a healthy future was launched at a virtual event held on 21 October 2021. The report tracks 44 indicators of health impacts that are directly linked to climate change, across five key thematic groups:

  • climate change impacts, exposures and vulnerability;
  • adaptation planning and resilience for health;
  • mitigation actions and health co-benefits;
  • economics and finance; and
  • public and political engagement.

The report notes that key trends are getting worse across every indicator, affecting people in all corners of the world.

For example, the potential for outbreaks of dengue, chikungunya and Zika is increasing most rapidly in countries with a very high human development index, including European countries.

Suitability for malaria infections is increasing in cooler highland areas of countries with a low human development index.

Coasts around northern Europe and the United States of America are becoming more conducive to bacteria which produce gastroenteritis, severe wound infections and sepsis. In resource-limited countries, the same dynamic is putting decades of progress towards controlling or eliminating these diseases at risk.

The report also notes that there are 569.6 million people living less than five metres above current sea levels, who could face rising risks of increased flooding, more intense storms, and soil and water salinification. Many of these people could be forced to permanently leave these areas and migrate further inland.

In light of these and other growing climate-related risks, the authors of the report call for urgent, globally coordinated action to mitigate climate change and build a healthier, sustainable future for all.

Among the report’s co-authors is Delia Grace, professor of food safety systems at the Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich on joint appointment at the International Livestock Research Institute.

Visit the Lancet Countdown 2021 website to read the thematic summaries and key findings of the report.

Access the full-text Lancet Countdown 2021 report and related articles and resources on the Lancet Countdown on health and climate change website.

Photo credit: Fishing quarter in Maputo, Mozambique (ILRI/Stevie Mann)

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